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Photo Gallery of Vegetable Problems –
Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables


Diseases

Clubroot of brassica vegetables

Damping-off/Seedling blight

Verticillium wilt White mold

Nematodes

Root knot

Insect/Mite Pests

Aphids

Blister beetle

Brown marmorated stink bug

Flea beetle

Seedcorn maggot

Spider mites

Squash bug

Western flower thrips

Whitefly

Wireworm

Weeds

Field dodder Yellow nutsedge

Herbicide Injury

Aminopyralid toxicity to vegetables 2,4-D injury to vegetables

Abiotic Problems Common to Vegetables

Blossom end rot

Edema

General nutrient deficiencies and toxicities

Herbicide injury

Stem splitting in brassica crops

Vivipary


In addition to the resources found here, the WSU Urban IPM Program’s Hortsense and Pestsense websites are designed for homeowner education and are used by County Extension Educators, Master Gardener Coordinators, Master Gardeners and Clinic Diagnosticians. Together, the two websites contain 1,050 fact sheets which provide up-to-date, research-based information on problem insects, diseases, and weeds and their management. The websites have been upgraded and the new versions are now available online. Additional features include a Hortsense image library and search, print and email options.

(Click on photo to enlarge)

Diseases

Disease: Clubroot of brassica vegetables
Pathogen: Plasmodiophora brassicae
Host crops: Broccolicabbagecauliflowerbrassicaceae (cruciferous) weeds, and radish.

Below-ground symptoms of clubroot.
Below-ground symptoms of clubroot.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Cabbage and Cauliflower (Brassicasp.) – Clubroot

Clubroot of Crucifers. Vegetable MD Online.

Clubroot. Wikipedia.

Clubroot of vegetable brassicas – towards integrated control. New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research Ltd.

Clubroot of Crucifers. The Ohio State University Extension.

Managing Clubroot: Equipment Sanitation Guide. Canola Council of Canada

Top 10 tips from the 2013 International Clubroot Workshop. Canola Watch, Canola Council of Canada.

 

Disease: Damping-off/Seedling blight
Pathogen: Aphanomyces, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia species.
Host crops: Most vegetables are susceptible to damping-off/seedling blight includingwatermelon.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Damping-off in Vegetable Seedlings

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Corn (Zea mays) – Seed Rot and Seedling Blight

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) – Damping-off

Common Diseases: Damping-off. Washington State University Hortsense.

 

Disease: Verticillium wilt
Pathogen: Verticillium species, including V. albo-atrum, V. dahliae and V. longisporum, depending on the vegetable crop.
Host crops: Numerous vegetables including many brassica vegetables (but not broccoli), cucumber, eggplant, pepper, potatopumpkin, radish, spinachtomatowatermelon, etc.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Verticillium Wilt

Common Diseases: Verticillium wilt. Washington State University Hortsense.

Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash: Verticillium wilt, Washington State University Hortsense

Verticillium Wilt in Spinach Seed Production

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) – Verticillium Wilt

Crop Profile for Spinach Seed in Washington

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) – Verticillium Wilt {Potato Early Dying}

Potato: Verticillium wilt (Potato early dying), Washington State University Hortsense

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) – Wilts (Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt)

Tomato: Verticillium wilt, Washington State University Hortsense

 

Disease: White mold
Pathogen: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Host crops: Beanvarious brassica vegetablescarrot, eggplant, lettucepotatotomato, etc.

Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit Photo Source: E. J. Sorensen
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) – White Mold {Sclerotinia Rot}

Bean: White mold (Sclerotinia rot). Washington State University Hortsense

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Cabbage and Cauliflower (Brassicasp.) – Sclerotinia Stem Rot and Watery Soft Rot

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Carrot (Daucus carota) Cottony Rot

Carrot: Cottony Rot (White Mold). Howard F. Schwartz and David H. Gent, Colorado State University

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) – Drop {Sclerotinia Rot}

UC Pest Management Guidelines: Lettuce: Lettuce Drop. UC IPM Online. University of California.

Diseases of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) in Arizona: Leaf drop. Extension Plant Pathology, The University of Arizona.

Evaluation of Products to Manage Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 2003. The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension.

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Pepper (Capsicum sp.) – White Mold

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) – White Mold {Sclerotinia Stem Rot}

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) – White Mold

Nematodes

 

Disease: Root knot
Pathogen: Meloidogyne species
Host crops: Numerous plant species including many vegetables such as carrotcoriander, onion, potato, etc.

Photo Source: E. J. Sorensen Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Symptoms of root knot on potato tubers
Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Carrot (Daucus carota) – Nematode, Root-knot

Carrot: Root-knot nematode, Washington State University Hortsense

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Nematodes

Major Emerging Problems with Minor Meloidogyne Species. By Axel A. Elling, Washington State University.

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) – Nematode, Root-knot

Onion and Garlic: Nematodes, UC IPM Online, University of California

Root-knot nematode. APSnet

 

Insect/Mite Pests

 

Common names: Numerous aphids can infest vegetable crops, e.g., bean aphid, green peach aphid, melon aphid, and potato aphid.
Latin binomial: Numerous types of aphids including Aphis fabae (bean aphid), Myzus persicae(green peach aphid), Aphis gossypii (melon aphid), and Acrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)
Host crops: In addition to cucumber, corn seed, melon, potato, tomato, eggplant and pepper, aphids can feed on many other vegetables including broccoli, cabbage, spinach, Swiss chard,squashpumpkin, beet as well as many weed species including Brassicaceae (cruciferous) weeds.

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA

Online Resources:

Biology and Management of Aphids in Organic Cucurbit Production Systems, Washington State University Extension and the Cooperative Extension System.

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests-Aphid

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Potato, Irish – Aphid

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Pumpkin and squash – Aphid.

Common Insect & Mite: Aphids, Washington State University Hortsense.

Common name: Blister beetle
Latin binomial: Epicauta spp. including E. maculata
Host crops: Blister beetles are typically considered beneficial insects as the larvae feed on grasshopper eggs, but they are occasional pests on crops such as alfalfa, beets, beans, clover, potatoes, other vegetable and field crops, and native plants.

Blister beetles defoliated a short section of an outside row of a potato crop, but did a little damage beyond that. The potato crop was adjacent to rangeland that had a lot of grasshopper eggs on which blister beetle larvae feed.
Photo Source: Sally Hubbs
Adult blister beetle of the species Epicauta pruinosa, which is differentiated from adults of E. fabricii by the second antennal segment: shorter than the third segment on E. pruinosa but longer or equal to the third segment on E. fabricii. E. fabriciihas a range south and east of Oregon, while E. pruinosaappears to be common in the Pacific Northwest and has a wider range. The two species produce different levels of cantharin, which is toxic and lethal to cattle.
Photo Source: OSU-HAREC Rondon’s lab (A. Murphy)

Online Resources:

Blister Beetles: Pest or Beneficial Predator?, Washington State University Extension Fact Sheet FS113E.

Blister Beetles: Coleptera: Meloidae Epicauta maculata, E. fabricii, E. puncticollis, Lytta nutalli. Modified from G. Bishop, et al. 1982. Management of Potato Insects in the Western States, Integrated Plant Protection Center of Oregon State University.

Blister Beetles, Identification & Management of Emerging Vegetable Problems in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Vegetable Extension Group.

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Vegetables, Section: Table Beets (aphid to cucumber beetle)

 

Common name: Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)
Latin binomial: Halyomorpha halys
Host crops: Very wide host range including Oregon berry, grape, tree fruits, hazelnuts, vegetables including pepper, corn, tomato, ornamentals, etc.

Photo Source: Nik Wimann, Oregon State University
Photo Source: Nik Wimann, Oregon State University Photo Source: Galen Dively, University of Maryland Photo Source: Tracy Leskey, USDA Photo Source: C. Hedstrom, Oregon State University
Photo Source: Nik Wimann, Oregon State University Photo Source: P Shearer, Oregon State University

Online Resources:

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Identification & Management of Emerging Vegetable Problems in the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Northwest Vegetable Extension Group.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Oregon, Oregon State University

Pest Watch: brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Washington State University Extension Fact Sheet FS0079E

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug News. Information and updates for Oregon. Volume 1, Spring 2013. Oregon State University.

Pest Alert: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, A quick ID guide from the Oregon Department of Agriculture

Common name: Flea beetle
Latin binomial: Pictured is the western potato flea beetle, Epitrix subcrinita, but the tuber flea beetle, Epitrix tuberis, may also damage foliage.
Host crops: Eggplant, pepperpotato, and tomato.

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA

Online Resources:

Potato Flea Beetles: Biology and Control. Washington State University Extension Bulletin 1198E.

Potato Flea Beetles. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Western Potato Flea Beetle Epitrix subcrinita, Tuber Flea Beetle Epitrix tuberis

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Irish Potatoes, Section: Flea Beetle to Grasshopper.

Vegetables: Potato: Potato flea beetles. Washington State University Hortsense.

 

Disease: Seedcorn maggot
Pathogen: Delia platura
Host crops: Many vegetable crops including snap, kidney, and lima beansonion, corn, turnip, pea, cabbage, and cucurbits. They cause the most damage in spring to newly emerging seedlings.

Photo Source:Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University Photo Source: Tim Waters, WSU Extension Educator for Benton and Franklin Counties

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Seedcorn maggot

Seed Corn Maggot. VegEdge, University of Minnesota

Seed Corn Maggot. UMass Amherst

 

Common name: Spider mites
Latin binomial: Tetranychus spp. including twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), strawberry spider mite (Tetranychus turkestani), and Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus)
Host crops: Wide host range, including many vegetables such as bean, carrot seed crops,potato, etc.

Severe outbreak of spider mites in a carrot seed crop in central Washington.
Photo Source: Silvia Rondon, Oregon State University Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

 

Online Resources:

Some Common Plant-Feeding Mites and Plant-Inhabiting Mite Predators in the Northwestern United States. PNW Insect Management Handbook.

Lima Bean – Spider Mites. PNW Insect Management Handbook.

Carrot seed – Twospotted spider mite. PNW Insect Management Handbook, Chapter: Vegetable Seed, Section: Carrot Seed.

Managing spider mites in gardens and landscapes. University of California Online Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.

 

Common name: Squash bug
Latin binomial: Anasa tristis
Host crops: Cucurbit vegetables (e.g. pumpkin and squash).

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Vegetables, Section: Pumpkin and Squash, pt.2.

Vegetables: Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash: Squash bug. Washington State University Hortsense.

Common name (of damaging stage): Western flower thrips
Latin binomial: Frankliniella occidentalis
Host crops: Host crops: BasilBroccoliCabbageCauliflowerCucumberOnionPotato,PumpkinSquashTomato, and Watermelon.

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA

Online Resources:

Western Flower Thrips Thysanoptera: Thripidae Frankiniella occidentalis.

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Vegetables, Section: Broccoli, Cabbage, Other Crucifers.

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Vegetables, Section: Cucumber (garden symphylan to wireworm).

Vegetables: Bean: Thrips. Washington State University Hortsense.

Vegetables: Broccoli, Cole crops: Thrips. Washington State University Hortsense.

Common name: Whitefly
Latin binomial: Pictured in these photos is the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), but there are multiple species of whitefly that can plague vegetable crops.
Host crops: Eggplant, pepper, potato, tomato, and other crops. Whiteflies are more frequently a problem in greenhouse (transplants) than in field situations in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA.

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA

 

Online Resources:

Greenhouse Whitefly: Biology and Control. Extension Bulletin 1349, Washington State University.

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter Irish Potatoes, Section: Tuberworm to Wireworm.

 

Common name (of damaging stage): Wireworm (adults are called click beetles or snapping beetles)
Latin binomial: Ctenicera spp. and Limonius spp. Several kinds of wireworms are in the Pacific Northwest. Wireworms causing the most damage in irrigated areas are the Pacific Coast wireworm (Limonius canus), the sugar beet wireworm (L. californicus), the western field wireworm (L. infuscatus), and the Columbia Basin wireworm (L. subauratus). The Pacific Coast and sugar beet wireworms are the most common. Where annual rainfall is <15 inches, the Great Basin wireworm (Ctenicera pruinina) may be a problem, especially when irrigated crops are grown on sagebrush or dry wheat land. This species usually disappears after a few years of irrigation, but may be replaced by Limonius spp. which are favored by moist conditions. West of the Cascades, other wireworm species are pests, including Agriotes spp.
Host crops: All crops are susceptible to wireworm, but this pest is most destructive on beans,carrotcorn, grain, onionpotatoesspinach seed crops, and other annual crops in the PNW.

Photo Source: Tim Waters, WSU Extension Educator Photo Source: Gary Pelter, WSU Extension Educator Emeritus Photo Source: Tim Waters,
WSU Extension Educator
Photo Source:Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University Photo Source: Doug Young, Professor Emeritus of Washington State University Photo Source: Oregon State University-Irrigated Agricultural Entomology Program (Silvia Rondon’s lab).
Photo Source: Oregon State University – Oregon State Arthropod Collection.

 

Online Resources:

Pacific NorthwestInsect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Wireworm.

Managing Wireworms in Vegetable Crops. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

Wireworms. VegEdge, University of Minnesota.

Wireworms & Click Beetles. Washington State University.

Wireworm Field Guide – A guide to the identification and control of wireworms, Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc.

Wireworm Biology and Nonchemical Management in Potatoes in the Pacific Northwest, N. Andrews, M. Ambrosino, G. Fisher, and S.I. Rondon, Pacific Northwest Extension Publication no. PNW607

 

Weeds

Common name: Field dodder
Latin binomial: Cuscuta spp.
Host crops: Bean, beet, carrotonionpepper, potato, tomato, and many other crops (not only vegetables). Dodder is a parasitic plant that feeds on many other plant species. Dodder cannot photosynthesize, but produces haustoria that penetrate the host plant to absorb water and nutrients. Small, white to cream flowers are produced.
Photo: Carrot and Pepper

Photo Source: Michael Bush, WSU Extension, Yakima, WA Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

 

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Parasitic Plants of Oregon. Oregon State University Extension.

Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook. Chapter: Control of Problem Weeds, Section: Full chapter. pp 483–484, Oregon State University Extension.

http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7496.html

http://www.colostate.edu/Dept/CoopExt/4DMG/Weed/dodder.htm

http://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/pathogen-articles/pathogens-common-many-plants/parasitic-plants-oregon

 

Common name: Yellow nutsedge
Latin binomial: Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae)
Plants affected: Any annual crop; the most seriously affected crops include onion and other plants with a light canopy and narrow range of herbicides available for use.

Online Resources:

Yellow Nutsedge. Identification & Management of Emerging Vegetable Problems in the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Northwest Vegetable Extension Group.

Abiotic Problems Common to Vegetables

Problem: Blossom end rot of vegetable fruit
Cause: Calcium deficiency resulting from various environmental conditions and management practices, e.g., inadequate Ca in the soil, inconsistent water as a result of alternating wet and dry periods that decrease Ca uptake by plants, and even excellent growing conditions such as a period of very bright sunshine and warm temperatures mid-season.
Crops affected: Tomatopepper, eggplant, and various cucurbits.

Blossom-end rot is a physiological disorder that first appears as a water-soaked, light brown spot on the distil end of the fruit. As the fruit matures, the spot becomes sunken, leathery, and brown to black. Secondary pathogens can infect the area, causing fruit rot. The disorder is more common on earliest maturing fruit. Blossom end rot is associated with a low concentration of calcium in developing fruit. In eastern Washington, this is often caused by excessive soil moisture fluctuations, drought stress, or excessive nitrogen fertilization. Soil surface mulches, appropriate irrigation timing and frequency, soil amendment with limestone, and foliar applications of calcium may reduce the incidence of this disorder.
Photo Source: Krishna Mohan, University of Idaho Photo Source: Carol Miles, Washington State University Photo Source: Mike Bush, WSU Yakima Co. Extension Educator

 

Online Resources:

Blossom-end-rot on Tomatoes. By M. Ophardt, 2013. WSU Extension Garden Tips.

Blossom end rot: Understanding a perennial problem. Michigan State University Extension.

Blossom-End Rot of Tomato, Pepper, and Eggplant. By Miller, S.A., R. C. Rowe, and R. M. Riedel, The Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-3117-96.

Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes. Oregon State University Extension Service Bulletin FS 139. By I.C. MacSwan, 2000. Oregon State University Extension Service Bulletin.

Vegetables: Tomato: Blossom-end Rot. Washington State University Hortsense.

 

Problem: General nutrient deficiencies and toxicities

Online Resources:

Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms. By Ann McCauley, Montana State University Extension. This article provides information on nutrient management issues.

 

Problem: Stem splitting in brassica crops
Crops affected: Any brassica crop grown for seed can develop stem splitting under conditions that promote very rapid spring growth (high soil moisture and warm temperatures)

Stem splitting in a winter canola crop in central Washington in spring (early May) resulting from very rapid growth under conditions of high soil moisture and sudden warm spring temperatures, following a supplementary nitrogen fertilizer application.
Photo Source: Karen Sowers, Washington State University Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences

Online Resources:

 

Problem: Edema
A physiological problem that is prominent when air is cooler than the soil, soil moisture is high, and relative humidity is high. The low plant transpiration rate combined with an increase in water absorption by roots from the soil leads to increased cell turgor pressure, resulting in eruption of epidermal cells as the inner cells enlarge. Protrusion of the inner cells causes epidermal cells to die and discolor, resulting in a ’warty’ appearance that can be misidentified as a disease. Symptoms are usually worse on lower leaf vs. upper leaf surfaces.
Host crops: Numerous vegetables including brassicas, cucurbits, peas, spinach, tomato, etc. Vegetables with waxy leaves, e.g., brassicas, tend to be most susceptible.

Symptoms of edema on the lower surface of spinach leaves, showing burst and calloused epidermal cells.
Photo Source: Pop Vriend Seed Co. Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University. Photo Source:
Phil Hamm, Oregon State University.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University.

 

Online Resources:

Cabbage and Cauliflower Brassica SP Oedema-Edema

Cabbage and Cauliflower Brassica SP Oedema-Edema

Edema Spring Crops

What are these bumps on my vegetables? Edema or oedema: It doesn’t matter how you spell it, it still doesn’t look good. What is it, what causes it and how can I prevent it? Michigan State University Extension

 

Problem: Vivipary (germination of seeds while still attached to the mother plant)
Crops affected: Solanaceaous vegetables like tomato and pepper.

This atypical tomato developed a dark discoloration just under the skin of the ripe fruit. When cut open, seeds within the tomato fruit were germinating. This physiological disorder is known as vivipary, where the seeds germinate while still in the fruit. It is suspected to be caused by plant stress such as drought, water stress, or potassium deficiency within the fruit. The fruit are still edible.
This atypical tomato developed a dark discoloration just under the skin of the ripe fruit. When cut open, seeds within the tomato fruit were germinating. This physiological disorder is known as vivipary, where the seeds germinate while still in the fruit. It is suspected to be caused by plant stress such as drought, water stress, or potassium deficiency within the fruit. The fruit are still edible.
Photo Source: Michael Bush, Washington State University Extension, Yakima, WA

Online Resources:

Effect of potassium nutrition during bell pepper seed development on vivipary and endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA).. By Marrush, M., M. Yamaguchi and M. E. Saltveit. 1998. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123(5):925–930.

Physiological and Nutrient Disorders. University of Kentucky Vegetable Integrated Pest Management Program. Vegetable Manuals.

Herbicide Injury

Problem: Herbicide injury to vegetables

Cause:Various kinds of herbicides can cause injury to different types of vegetable crops depending on the mode of action, use pattern, timing of application, rate of application, crop rotation, etc. Always follow label instructions to avoid herbicide injury to crops.

Crops affected: All vegetables are prone to some kind of herbicide injury if the herbicide products are not used according to label instructions or vegetable crops are not planted in accordance with label herbicide instructions.

Online Resources:

Herbicide Modes and Action and Symptoms on Plants, Richard Smith, Farm Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension.

Herbicide-related injury to plant species, including vegetables (~1100 images), University of California Statewide IPM Program.

Problem: Aminopyralid toxicity to vegetables from pre-plant compost application
Crops affected: bean, pea, pepper, tomato, spinach, etc. (almost any dicotyledonous plants)

Aminopyralid toxicity to pepper.
Aminopyralid toxicity to pepper.
Aminopyralid toxicity to pepper.

Online Resources:

Aminopyralid Residues in Compost and other Organic Amendments. Washington State University Whatcom County Extension.

Use of Compost on Organic Farms. Washington State Department of Agriculture, 8/30/2010.

The Allowance of Green Waste in Organic Production Systems. National Organic Program.
Problem: 2,4-D herbicide injury
Crops affected: Most vegetables are susceptible to 2,4-D injury

Photo Source: Jenny Glass, WSU Puyallup PIDL

Online Resources:

Injury from 2,4-D. University of Illinois Extension Extension.

Herbicide Mode-Of-Action Summary. Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University. See section I.A.1. Auxin Growth Regulators.

Herbicide Damage: 2,4-D and triclopyr. Hortsense, Washington State University. Click on Herbicide Damage, 2,4-D and triclopyr.

Vegetable Herbicide Damage. Colorado State University.

2,4-D Amine 4L injury symptoms on vegetables. University of Kentucky.