Pacific Northwest Vegetable Extension Group

of Washington State University, Oregon State University, and University of Idaho

Photo Gallery of Vegetable Problems

Bean

(Click on photo to enlarge)

Diseases

For those of you who work with bean crops of any kind (oilseed, cover, processing, fresh market, seed, forage, etc.), here is important and time-sensitive information from Victor Shaul of the WSDA Seed Program on proposed amendments to bean seed quarantine rules in WA.

Victor Shaul: "First off thank all of you that provided input and took your time coming to meetings on this important topic. 

"The public hearing for the changes to the Bean Seed Quarantine was held on July 7th.  Those in attendance were in favor of the proposed changes to the quarantine.  The effective date of these changes is August 21, 2015

 "To re-cap the changes to the quarantine are:

 ·         Bean seed fields under sprinkler irrigation will require three inspections with the option of laboratory testing for halo blight in lieu of the first inspection.

·         The elimination of the Notice of Intent quarantine reporting form.  This will be replaced with the requirement to attach proof of quarantine compliance with every phytosanitary or certified field inspection application.    

 "As previously discussed these changes come too late for this season, but I am really pleased at the number of field inspection applications that were submitted for this season that proactively implemented these methodologies.

 "These changes will necessitate new application and inspection forms, so that will be an internal winter project and you will be provided with new applications to use at that time."

Please provide feedback or recommendations to:
Victor Shaul, WSDA Seed Program Manager
vshaul@agr.wa.gov

Further Info:
Proposed Bean Seed Quarantine Rule Amendments


Disease: Alfalfa mosaic
Pathogen: Alfalfa mosaic virus

Photo of Alfalfa mosaic on lima bean
 
Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, All (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Bean Common Mosaic, Oregon State University


Common name: Alternaria leaf and pod spot
Cause: Alternaria species, including A. alternata (synonym A. tenuis), A. brassicae f. phaseoli, and A. brassicicola.
Host Crops: Various types of bean.

Alternaria leaf spot symptoms. Alternaria leaf spot symptoms. Alternaria leaf spot symptoms. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf spot on a lima bean leaf held up to a light.
Alternaria leaf spot symptoms. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf spot on a lima bean leaf held up to a light.
Photo Source: Carrie H. Wohleb, Washington State University Extension Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Fungal Leaf Spots, Bean IPM, Legume ipmPIPE Diagnostic Series, H.F. Schwartz (Colorado State University) and S.K.Mohan (University of Idaho)

Alternaria Leaf and Pod Spot of Snap Bean in Florida, Shouan Zhang, Aaron J. Palmateer, Ken Pernezny, and R. T. McMillan, Jr., U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.

Alternaria leaf spot of faba beans, Grains Research and Development Corp., State Government of Victoria, AU.

Disease: Anthracnose
Pathogen: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Photo of symptoms of bean anthracnose on bean Photo of symptoms of bean anthracnose on bean leaf Photo of symptoms of bean anthracnose on bean Photo of symptoms of bean anthracnose on beans
 
Photo Source: Krishna Mohan, University of Idaho
Photo of symptoms of bean anthracnose on bean bean-anthracnose-6 bean-anthracnose-7 bean-anthracnose-8 bean-anthracnose-9
      Bean anthracnose lesions on the abaxial surface of a bean leaf. Severe bean anthracnose symptoms associated with seedborne infection and transmission.
Photo Source: Krishna Mohan, University of Idaho Photo Source:
Karen Ward, WSU Pullman Plant Diagnostician
Photo Source:
Karen Ward, WSU Pullman Plant Diagnostician
Photo Source:
Brook Brouwer, Washington State University

On-Line Resources:

Vegetable MD Online: Bean Anthracnose, Cornell University


Disease: Bacterial brown spot
Pathogens: Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae
Host crops: Bean crops (including snap beans, lima beans, and dry beans), vetch, and several leguminous weeds. Lima beans are more susceptible than snap green beans. Strains of P. syringae that infect fruit crops do not cause brown spot on bean. The pathogen can be seedborne in bean.

Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves and/or pods caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Pod lesions can be associated with sites of insect feeding injury, e.g., from lygus bugs. Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves and/or pods caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Pod lesions can be associated with sites of insect feeding injury, e.g., from lygus bugs. Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves and/or pods caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Pod lesions can be associated with sites of insect feeding injury, e.g., from lygus bugs. Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves and/or pods caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Pod lesions can be associated with sites of insect feeding injury, e.g., from lygus bugs.
Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves and/or pods caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Pod lesions can be associated with sites of insect feeding injury, e.g., from lygus bugs.
Photo Source: Lyndon Porter, USDA ARS plant pathologist
Watersoaked symptoms along the suture of a bean pod caused by the brown spot bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Lesions along the stems and petioles of bean plants caused by the brown spot bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Lesions along the stems and petioles of bean plants caused by the brown spot bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Watersoaked symptoms along the suture of a bean pod caused by the brown spot bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Lesions along the stems and petioles of bean plants caused by the brown spot bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Photo Source: Lyndon Porter, USDA ARS plant pathologist
Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Symptoms of brown spot on bean leaves caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Photo Source: Phil Miklas, USDA ARS bean breeder

Online Resources:

Bacterial Brown Spot, PNW Plant Disease Management Handbook, a Pacific Northwest Extension Publication

Bacterial Diseases of Beans, Fact Sheet Page 729.50, Date: 10-1991, Cornel University Vegetable MD On-line

Bacterial Brown Spot, How to Manage Pests, University of California Inetgrated Pest Management Guidelines.

Bacterial Diseases of Dry Edible Beans in the Central High Plains, Plant Management Network

Disease: Bean common mosaic
Pathogen: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)

Photo of symptoms of bean common mosaic on bean leaves Photo of symptoms of bean common mosaic on bean leaves Photo of symptoms of bean common mosaic on bean leaves
Photo of symptoms of bean common mosaic virus on bean leaves. Severe stunting and leaf cupping associated with seedborne BCMV. Leaf cupping as well as banded light and dark green areas on a bean leaf infected with BCMV.
Photo Source: Krishna Mohan, University of Idaho Photo Source: Brook Brouwer, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, All (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Bean Common Mosaic
 

Disease: Common bacterial blight
Pathogen: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli
Host crops: Edible beans crops and bean seed crops (including snap beans, lima beans, and dry beans)

Photo of common bacterial blight on pods Photo of mature common bacterial blight lesions Photo of water-soaked lesions of common bacterial blight.
Common bacterial blight on pods. Mature common bacterial blight lesions. Water-soaked lesions of common bacterial blight.
Photo Source: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University

On-Line Resources:

Common Bacterial Blight and Halo Blight: Two Bacterial Diseases of Phytosanitary Significance for Bean Crops in Washington State, Washington State University Extension Fact Sheet

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, All (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Common Bacterial Blight {Common Blight}


Disease: Curly top
Pathogen: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), vectored by the beet leafhopper Circulifer tenellus
Host crops: Numerous plant species including many vegetables such as bean, beet, carrot, eggplant, coriander, pepper, potato, tomato, various cucurbits such as squash, cucumber, pumpkin, watermelon, etc.

Photo of Beet curly top virus on bean Photo of symptoms of curly top of bean Photo of symptoms of curly top of bean Photo of symptoms of curly top of bean
Beet curly top virus on bean. Symptoms of curly top virus of bean. Symptoms of curly top virus of bean. Symptoms of curly top virus of bean.
Photo Source: Phil Hamm Photo Source: Lindsey J. du Toit
Photo of symptoms of curly top virus of bean plant A cranberry bean plant infected with curly top. A pinto bean plant infected with curly top.
Symptoms of curly top virus of bean. A cranberry bean plant infected with curly top. A pinto bean plant infected with curly top.
Photo Source: Krishna Mohan, University of Idaho Photo Source: Carrie Wohleb, Washington State University Photo Source: Carrie Wohleb, Washington State University

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, All (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Curly Top

Curly Top Disease of Tomato, Plant Management Network International.


Disease: Fusarium root rot
Pathogen: Fusarium solani

Photo of Fusarium root rot on green bean
Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Fusarium Root Rot

Bean: Fusarium root rot, Washington State University Hortsense


Disease: Gray mold
Pathogen: Botrytis cinerea

Photo of Gray mold on Hercules garden beans
Gray mold on Hercules garden beans. Note the watersoaked lesion on one bean pod, and brown-gray sporulation of Botrytis cinerea on a severely symptomatic bean pod.
Photo Source: Carrie H. Wohleb

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Gray Mold

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Lima Phaseolus lunatas – Gray Mold


Disease: Halo blight
Pathogen: Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

Photo of Haol blight on bean Photo of Halo blight symptoms on a bean leaf. Photo of severe halo blight Photo of reddish-brown lesions on bean leaves Photo of water-soaked lesion on  underside of bean leaf
  Halo blight symptoms on a bean leaf. Severe foliar symptoms of halo blight. Reddish-brown lesions and yellow halos on bean leaves infected with halo blight. Water-soaked lesion on the underside of a bean leaf. Note the yellow ‘halo’ around the small, necrotic lesion.
Photo Source: D.A. Inglis Photo Source: Carrie Wohleb, WSU Extension Educator,
Grant and Adams Counties

On-Line Resources:

Common Bacterial Blight and Halo Blight: Two Bacterial Diseases of Phytosanitary Significance for Bean Crops in Washington State, Washington State University Extension Fact Sheet

Halo Blight of Beans, Identification & Management of Emerging Vegetable Problems in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Vegetable Extension Group.

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, All (Phaseolus vulgaris) – Halo Blight
 
Disease: Pythium blight (also known as cottony leak or Pythium leak)
Pathogen: Pythium species
Host Crops: When bean plants are under excessive irrigation, or during cool and/or prolonged periods of moist conditions, Pythium spp. may colonize the stems, branches, and even pods of bean plants, resulting in a water-soaked rot of the affected tissues, accompanied by fluffy, white, aerial mycelium of the pathogen. The disease may be mistaken for early stages of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, but microscopic examination readily enables differentiation of the two diseases/pathogens.

Title Title Title Title
Symptoms of Pythium blight in a bean crop caused by Pythium ultimum. Colonization of the stem of a garden bean plant by Pythium ultimum under very humid/moist conditions. Symptoms of Pythium blight on a garden bean plant caused by Pythium ultimum under humid/moist conditions. White mycelium of Pythium ultimum on a garden bean stem.
Photo Source: Carrie H. Wohleb, Washington State University Photo Source: Lindsey J. du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Bean, Dry (Phaseolus vulgaris)-Pythium Diseases {Pythium Blight}, Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Handbook.

Bean Diseases: Pythium Blight, University of Delaware Cooperative Extension.

Cultivar and Fungicide Effects on Pythium Leak of Snap Bean, Plant Health Progress, Plant Management Network.


Disease: Pythium root rot
Pathogen: Pythium species

Photo of Pythium root rot on pinto bean
Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Dry (Phaseolus vulgaris)– Pythium Diseases {Pythium Blight}


Disease: White mold
Pathogen: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Host crops: Bean, various brassica vegetables, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, potato, tomato, etc.

Photo of white mold on bean pod Photo of sclerotia on flowers and stem white mold on bean Photo of white mold on bean pod Photo of mycelium on pod
Flower and leaf infection. Sclerotia on flowers and stem.   Early pod infection. Mycelium on pod.  
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit Photo Source:
Lyndon Porter
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit
Photo of white mold on green bean Photo of white mycelium and black sclerotia developing inside bean pod Photo of stem infection bean-white-mold-7 bean-white-mold-9
  White mycelium and black sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum developing inside a bean pod. Stem infection.   Sclerotia on beans.
Photo Source: G.Q. Pelter Photo Source:
Krishna Mohan
Photo Source:
Lindsey du Toit
Photo Source:
Jordan Eggers

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Bean, Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) – White Mold {Sclerotinia Rot}

Bean: White mold (Sclerotinia rot). Washington State University Hortsense


See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: White mold.
 

Insect/Mite Pests

Disease: Seedcorn maggot
Pathogen: Delia platura
Host Crops: Many vegetable crops including snap, kidney, and lima beans, onion, corn, turnip, pea, cabbage, and cucurbits. They cause the most damage in spring to newly emerging seedlings.

Photo os seedcorn maggot damage on bean plant Photo of seedcorn maggot larvae Photo of seedcorn maggot fly on soil Photo of seedcorn maggot fly
Seedcorn maggot injury to bean leaves. Seedcorn maggot larvae. Seedcorn maggot fly on soil. Seedcorn maggot fly.
Photo Source: Tim Waters, WSU Extension Educator for Benton and Franklin Counties

On-Line Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Seedcorn maggot

Seed Corn Maggot. VegEdge, University of Minnesota

Seed Corn Maggot. UMass Amherst

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Seedcorn maggot


 

Common name: Spider mites
Latin binomial: Tetranychus spp. including two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), strawberry spider mite (Tetranychus turkestani), and Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus)
Host crops: Wide host range, including many vegetables such as bean, carrot, potato, etc.

Title Title Title
Severe spider mite infestation in an adzuki bean crop. Note the silvering of the lower leaf surface and white stippling on the upper surface of some leaves from a very dense population of spider mites feeding on these leaves.  
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University  
A colony of spider mites on snap beans. Two-spotted spider mite adult and eggs on a potato leaf. Eggs of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.
A colony of spider mites on snap beans. Two-spotted spider mite adult and eggs on a potato leaf. Eggs of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.
Photo Source: Silvia Rondon, Oregon State University

Online Resources:

http://insect.pnwhandbooks.org/vegetable/vegetable-pests/hosts-and-pests/bean-dry-spider-mite

http://insect.pnwhandbooks.org/vegetable/vegetable-pests/hosts-and-pests/bean-lima-spider-mite

http://insect.pnwhandbooks.org/vegetable/vegetable-pests/hosts-and-pests/bean-snap-spider-mite

See also Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Spider mites.


Common name: Thrips, including western flower thrips, onion thrips, and other species.
Latin binomial: Various thrips including Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips) and Thrips tabaci (onion thrips).
Host crops: Numerous plant species including many vegetables such as basil, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, onion, potato, pumpkin, squash, tomato and watermelon.

Downward cupping of bean leaves and other leaf distortion as a result of severe thrips infestation. Downward cupping of bean leaves and other leaf distortion as a result of severe thrips infestation.
Downward cupping of bean leaves and other leaf distortion as a result of severe thrips infestation.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Silvering/stippling and browning of veins on the lower bean leaf surface as a result of severe thrips feeding injury. Silvering/stippling and browning of veins on the lower bean leaf surface as a result of severe thrips feeding injury. Silvering/stippling and browning of veins on the lower bean leaf surface as a result of severe thrips feeding injury.
Silvering/stippling and browning of veins on the lower bean leaf surface as a result of severe thrips feeding injury.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook. Chapter: Vegetable Crops, Section: Bean, dry.   

Washington State University Hortsense

Western Flower Thrips Thysanoptera: Thripidae Frankiniella occidentalis,

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Western flower thrips.


Common name (of damaging stage): Wireworm (adults are called click beetles or snapping beetles)
Latin binomial: Ctenicera spp. and Limonius spp. Several kinds of wireworms are in the Pacific Northwest. Wireworms causing the most damage in irrigated areas are the Pacific Coast wireworm (Limonius canus), the sugar beet wireworm (L. californicus), the western field wireworm (L. infuscatus), and the Columbia Basin wireworm (L. subauratus). The Pacific Coast and sugar beet wireworms are the most common. Where annual rainfall is <15 inches, the Great Basin wireworm (Ctenicera pruinina) may be a problem, especially when irrigated crops are grown on sagebrush or dry wheat land. This species usually disappears after a few years of irrigation, but may be replaced by Limonius spp. which are favored by moist conditions. West of the Cascades, other wireworm species are pests, including Agriotes spp.
Host crops: All crops are susceptible to wireworm, but this pest is most destructive on beans, carrot, corn, grain, onion, potatoes, spinach seed crops, and other annual crops in the PNW.

Photo of wireworm adult Photo of wireworm larva Photo of monitoring wireworm density closeup of wireworm
Adult wireworm is commonly known as a click beetle. Beetle size 3/8 to 1/2 inch (8–12 mm). Wireworm larva is dark orange or brown and mature larvae are 3/8 to 1/2 inch in length. Wireworm larvae density can be monitored with oatmeal bait.  
Photo Source: David Horton, USDA-ARS, Wapato Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
A click beetle of the species Agriotes obscurus, the larvae of which are wireworms. A click beetle of the species Limonius californicus, the larvae of which are wireworms. A click beetle of the species Limonius canus, the larvae of which are wireworms.
A click beetle of the species Agriotes obscurus, the larvae of which are wireworms. A click beetle of the species Limonius californicus, the larvae of which are wireworms. A click beetle of the species Limonius canus, the larvae of which are wireworms.
Photo Source: Oregon State University – Oregon State Arthropod Collection.

On-Line Resources:

Pacific NorthwestInsect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Wireworm

Managing Wireworms in Vegetable Crops. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

Wireworms. VegEdge, University of Minnesota.

Wireworms & Click Beetles. Washington State University

Dry beans: Wireworms. UC IPM Online, University of California

Wireworm Field Guide - A guide to the identification and control of wireworms, Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc.

Wireworm Biology and Nonchemical Management in Potatoes in the Pacific Northwest, N. Andrews, M. Ambrosino, G. Fisher, and S.I. Rondon, Pacific Northwest Extension Publication no. PNW607

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Wireworm
 


Abiotic Problems on Bean

Common name: Crumpled leaf or LCR
Cause: A genetic disorder or trait called crumpled leaf or LCR caused by an incompatible developmental reaction when beans from different centers of domestication are crossed, e.g., in crosses of Mesoamerican bush blue lake materials with Andean Midwestern types of beans.
Host Crops: Various types of beans resulting from crosses of different races of beans.

Photo of symptoms of LCR on bean leaf Photo of symptoms of LCR on bean leaf Photo of symptoms of LCR on bean leaf
Foliar chlorosis and necrosis resulting from a genetic disorder called crumpled leaf, a genetic trait called crumpled leaf or LCR caused by an incompatible developmental reaction when beans from different centers of domestication are crossed, e.g., crosses of Mesoamerican bush blue lake materials with Andean Midwestern types of beans. Symptoms can resemble those caused by virus infections. Lines with the trait may vary in intensity of expression, and the expression can vary over the season.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

On-Line Resources:

Singh, S.P. and A. Molina. 1996. Inheritance of crippled trifoliolate leaves occurring in interracial crosses of common bean and its relationship with hybrid dwarfism. J. Hered. 87:464-469.

 

Herbicide Injury

Common name: Injury from various types of herbicides can result from drift, residual carryover in soil or planting material, excessive rates of application, overlap in applications, etc.
Cause: Various types of herbicides can cause injury to bean plants.
Host Crops: This depends on the specific herbicide. For example, most broadleaf plants are susceptible to injury by 2,4-D.

Title Title Title Title
Symptoms of injury from drift of the herbicide 2,4-D into a bean crop. Severe injury to a pinto bean crop from Outlook, an acetanilide herbicide. Notice the unifoliate leaves typically are asymptomatic, whereas the trifoliate leaves have a puckered, drawstring appearance. Injury from Outlook can be affected by soil texture, compaction, temperature, etc., resulting in non-uniform distribution of symptomatic plants in a field.
Photo Source: Carrie H. Wohleb, Washington State University Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

2,4-D- and Dicamba-tolerant Crops — Some Facts to Consider, Purdue University Extension

Herbicide Mode of Action and Injury Symptoms, University of Minnesota Extension Service


Air pollution/ozone injury

Common name: Air pollution or ozone injury
Cause: During very hot conditions, combined with the presence of excessive air particulate matter, e.g., from wildfires, symptoms of air pollution and/or ozone injury have been observed in multiple bean fields in central Washington, particularly in adzuki bean crops.
Host Crops: Various types of beans, but adzuki beans seem to be particularly susceptible.

Possible symptoms of ozone or air pollution injury to adzuki beans. Possible symptoms of ozone or air pollution injury to adzuki beans. Possible symptoms of ozone or air pollution injury to adzuki beans. Symptoms of air pollution and possible ozone injury in a bean crop.
Possible symptoms of ozone or air pollution injury to adzuki beans. Symptoms of air pollution and possible ozone injury in a bean crop.
Photo Source: Carrie H. Wohleb, Washington State University Extension Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Title Title
Symptoms of air pollution and possible ozone injury in a bean crop.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Dry Beans, University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines

Ozone injury on beans, Cornell Univ. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Vegetable Pathology.

Air Pollution Effects on Vegetables, Gerald E. Brust, IPM Vegetable Specialist, University of Maryland, 2007

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