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Photo Gallery of Vegetable Problems – Spinach


Diseases

Anthracnose

Cladosporium leaf spot

Damping-off/Seedling blight

Downy mildew

Fusarium wilt

Stemphylium leaf spot

Verticillium wilt

Insect/Mite Pests

Lygus bugs

Spinach leafminer

Spider mites

Springtails

Wireworm

Abiotic Problems

Edema Herbicide injury

(Click on photo to enlarge)

Diseases

Disease: Anthracnose
Latin binomial: Colletotrichum dematium (= Colletotrichum spinaciae, Colletotrichum dematium f. sp. spinaciae)
Host crops: Spinach.

Watersoaked lesions on spinach leaves caused by Colletotrichum dematium.
Photo Source: Jules Riske, Osborne International Seed Co. Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Online Resources:

Spinach Diseases: Field Identification, Implications, & Management Practices by Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University, presented on 23 May 2006 at the Organic Seed Alliance Spinach Seed Field Day.

Biology and Management of Spinach Anthracnose. Oklahoma State University

Diseases of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) in Arizona: Anthracnose. The University of Arizona

HPIPM: Anthracnose Spinach. Bugwood Wiki.

Spinach: Anthracnose. UC IPM Online, University of California

 

Disease: Cladosporium leaf spot
Causal agent: Cladosporium variable

Photo Source:D.A. Inglis Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit
Photo Source: Mike Derie

 

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) – Leaf Spot

Crop Profile for Spinach Seed in Washington

 

Disease: Damping-off/Seedling blight
Pathogen: Aphanomyces, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia species.
Host crops: Most vegetables are susceptible to damping-off/seedling blight includingwatermelon.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Damping-off in Vegetable Seedlings

Common Diseases: Damping-off. Washington State University Hortsense.

University of California IPM online page on spinach damping-off and root rot.

Disease: Downy Mildew
Pathogen: Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) – Downy Mildew

UC Pest Management Guidelines: Spinach: Downy Mildew. UC IPM Online. University of California

Disease: Fusarium wilt
Pathogen: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae
Host crops: Spinach. Other crops can be asymptomatic hosts, e.g., beet and Swiss chard.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University

Online Resources:

Effect of agricultural limestone amendment on Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt in a spinach seed crop, 2008. Plant Disease Management Reports

Evaluation of limestone amendments for control of Fusarium wilt in a spinach seed crop, 2006. Plant Disease Management Reports

Fusarium & Verticillium Wilts in Spinach: Research Update

 

Disease: Stemphylium leaf spot
Causal agent: Stemphylium botryosum (asexual stage) (= Pleospora herbarum, sexual stage)

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit Photo Source: Mike Derie

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) – Stemphylium Leaf Spot

Crop Profile for Spinach Seed in Washington

 

Disease: Verticillium wilt
Causal agent: Verticillium dahliae
Host crops: Numerous vegetables including many brassica vegetables (but not broccoli), cucumber, eggplant, pepper, potatopumpkin, radish, spinach, tomatowatermelon, etc.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit

Online Resources:

Verticillium Wilt in Spinach Seed Production

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) – Verticillium Wilt

Crop Profile for Spinach Seed in Washington

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Verticillium wilt

Fusarium & Verticillium Wilts in Spinach: Research Update

Insect/Mite Pests

Common name: Lygus bugs
Latin binomial: Lygus spp.
Host crops: Numerous different species of vegetables and other crops, e.g., alfalfa, beet, cabbage, carrot, spinach, Swiss chard, etc. Lygus bugs can cause different types of damage to various growth stages of different crops. They cause blackheart on celery, blasting on flower tissues, collapse of asparagus spears, decreased yields in carrot, beet, spinach, and other seed crops, etc.

Lygus bugs cause damage in spinach seed crops by feeding on the developing flowers and seed. A black sticky substance is often produced at the site of feeding injury.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University Photo Source: Bev Gerdeman, WSU Entomologist

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Lygus bug

Common nameSpider mite
Latin binomialTetranychus spp. including twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), strawberry spider mite (Tetranychus turkestani), and Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus)
Host crops: Wide host range, including many vegetables such as bean, carrot seed crops,potato, etc.

Severe spider mite infestation in a spinach seed crop.
Photo Source: Bev Gerdeman, WSU Entomologist
Photo Source: Silvia Rondon, Oregon State University

On-Line Resources:

Carrot seed – Twospotted spider mite. PNW Insect Management Handbook, Chapter: Vegetable Seed, Section: Carrot Seed.

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Spider mites.

Managing spider mites in gardens and landscapes. University of California Online Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.

 

Common name: Spinach leafminer
Latin binomial: Pegomya hyoscyami
Host crops: Spinach, beet, sugar beet, Swiss chard, and many weeds including lamb’s-quarters, chickweed, and nightshade

Photo Source: Lyndon Porter, USDA-ARS Photo Source: Scott Chichester, vegetable grower Photo Source: Lyndon Porter, USDA-ARS
Photo Source: Lyndon Porter, USDA-ARS Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, WSU

Online Resources:

Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook: Spinach – Leafminer

Spinach: Leafminers, UC IPM Online, University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources

Leafminers (vegetables), Wisconsin Horticulture, University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension

 

Common name: Springtails (subterranean types)
Latin binomial: Order Collembola. There are numerous types of springtails or collembola, which are divided into two groups – subterranean springtails and surface springtails.
Host crops: Multiple vegetables, but most damage has been reported on spinach and beets, primarily in heavier, organic soils during very wet, cool spring conditions.

Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
A subterranean springtail extracted from soil in a spinach seed crop.
Photo Source: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Online Resources:

Springtails in Sugarbeet: Identification, Biology, and Management. North Dakota State University, Fargo

Control of Subterranean Springtails in Sugarbeet Using Granular, Liquid, and Seed Treatment Insecticides. North Dakota State University, Fargo

Springtail feeding on emerging crops (especially sugarbeet). Michigan State University

Pest: Springtail. Pest Spotter, Bayer CropScience

Also, see Swiss Chard: Springtails

 

Common name (of damaging stage): Wireworm (adults are called click beetles or snapping beetles)
Latin binomial: Ctenicera spp. and Limonius spp. Several kinds of wireworms are in the Pacific Northwest. Wireworms causing the most damage in irrigated areas are the Pacific Coast wireworm (Limonius canus), the sugar beet wireworm (L. californicus), the western field wireworm (L. infuscatus), and the Columbia Basin wireworm (L. subauratus). The Pacific Coast and sugar beet wireworms are the most common. Where annual rainfall is <15 inches, the Great Basin wireworm (Ctenicera pruinina) may be a problem, especially when irrigated crops are grown on sagebrush or dry wheat land. This species usually disappears after a few years of irrigation, but may be replaced by Limonius spp. which are favored by moist conditions. West of the Cascades, other wireworm species are pests, including Agriotes spp.
Host crops: All crops are susceptible to wireworm, but this pest is most destructive on beans,carrot, corn, grain, onionpotatoes, spinach seed crops, and other annual crops in the PNW.

Photo Source: David Horton, USDA-ARS, Wapato Photo Source:Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University
Photo Source: Oregon State University – Oregon State Arthropod Collection.

 

Online Resources:

Pacific NorthwestInsect Management Handbook: Vegetable crop pests – Wireworm

Managing Wireworms in Vegetable Crops. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

Wireworms VegEdge, University of Minnesota

Wireworms & Click Beetles. Washington State University

Spinach: Wireworms. UC IPM Online, University of California

Wireworm Field Guide – A guide to the identification and control of wireworms, Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc.

Wireworm Biology and Nonchemical Management in Potatoes in the Pacific Northwest, N. Andrews, M. Ambrosino, G. Fisher, and S.I. Rondon, Pacific Northwest Extension Publication no. PNW607

See Diseases, pests, and other problems common to many vegetables: Wireworm

Abiotic Problems

Herbicide Injury:

ProblemClomazone (Command) herbicide residual carryover in spinach

Crops affected: Spinach and many other crops sensitive to clomazone develop symptoms of whitening of the foliage if planted too soon after an application of the herbicide clomazone (Command). It is very important to follow crop rotation intervals recommended on the label to avoid such injury.

Symptoms of white foliage caused by planting spinach into soil with residual clomazone herbicide from a crop grown preceding spinach.
Photo Source: Tim Miller, Washington State University Weed Scientist

 

Online Resources:

Spinach: Integrated Weed Management. University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines.

Command® 3ME. Maufacturer’s product information page, FMC Corporation.

 

Common name: Edema
Cause: A physiological problem prominent when air is cooler than the soil, soil moisture is high, and relative humidity is high. The low plant transpiration rates combined with an increase in water absorption by roots from the soil leads to increased cell turgor pressure, resulting in eruption of epidermal cells as the inner cells enlarge. Protrusion of the inner cells causes epidermal cells to die and discolor, resulting in a ’warty’ appearance that can be misidentified as a disease. Symptoms are usually worse on the lower leaf surface and on older (lower) leaves.
Host Crops: Numerous vegetables including spinach, brassicas, tomato, etc. Vegetables with waxy leaves, e.g., brassicas, tend to be most susceptible.
Photo Source: Pop Vriend Seed Co.

Symptoms of edema on the lower surface of spinach leaves, showing burst and calloused epidermal cells.
Photo Source: Pop Vriend Seed Co., Holland


University of Massachusetts: Edema Spring Crops

Online Resources:
University of Delaware: Edema on Cole Crop Leaves

What are these bumps on my vegetables? Edema or oedema: It doesn’t matter how you spell it, it still doesn’t look good. What is it, what causes it and how can I prevent it? Michigan State University Extension